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Original Research

Household Air Pollution Exposures of Pregnant Women Receiving Advanced Combustion Cookstoves in India: Implications for Intervention

Authors:

Kalpana Balakrishnan ,

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India
About Kalpana
PhD
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Sankar Sambandam,

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India
About Sankar
PhD
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Santu Ghosh,

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India
About Santu
MSc
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Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay,

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India
About Krishnendu
PhD
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Mayur Vaswani,

The INCLEN Trust International, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi, India
About Mayur
BE
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Narendra K. Arora,

The INCLEN Trust International, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi, India
About Narendra K.
MD
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Darby Jack,

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY
About Darby
PhD
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Ajay Pillariseti,

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA
About Ajay
MPH
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Michael N. Bates,

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA
About Michael N.
PhD
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Kirk R. Smith

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA
About Kirk R.
PhD
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Abstract

Background

Household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the use of solid cooking fuels is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in India. Advanced combustion cookstoves that reduce emissions from biomass fuels have been considered potential interventions to reduce this burden. Relatively little effort has been directed, however, to assessing the concentration and exposure changes associated with the introduction of such devices in households.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to describe HAP exposure patterns in pregnant women receiving a forced-draft advanced combustion cookstove (Philips model HD 4012) in the SOMAARTH Demographic Development & Environmental Surveillance Site (DDESS) Palwal District, Haryana, India. The monitoring was performed as part of a feasibility study to inform a potential large-scale HAP intervention (Newborn Stove trial) directed at pregnant women and newborns.

Methods

This was a paired comparison exercise study with measurements of 24-hour personal exposures and kitchen area concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), before and after the cookstove intervention. Women (N = 65) were recruited from 4 villages of SOMAARTH DDESS. Measurements were performed between December 2011 and March 2013. Ambient measurements of PM2.5 were also performed throughout the study period.

Findings

Measurements showed modest improvements in 24-hour average concentrations and exposures for PM2.5 and CO (ranging from 16% to 57%) with the use of the new stoves. Only those for CO showed statistically significant reductions.

Conclusion

Results from the present study did not support the widespread use of this type of stove in this population as a means to reliably provide health-relevant reductions in HAP exposures for pregnant women compared with open biomass cookstoves. The feasibility assessment identified multiple factors related to user requirements and scale of adoption within communities that affect the field efficacy of advanced combustion cookstoves as well as their potential performance in HAP intervention studies.

How to Cite: Balakrishnan, K., Sambandam, S., Ghosh, S., Mukhopadhyay, K., Vaswani, M., Arora, N.K., Jack, D., Pillariseti, A., Bates, M.N. and Smith, K.R., 2015. Household Air Pollution Exposures of Pregnant Women Receiving Advanced Combustion Cookstoves in India: Implications for Intervention. Annals of Global Health, 81(3), pp.375–385. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2015.08.009
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Published on 27 Nov 2015.
Peer Reviewed

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