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Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Changing Global Patterns of Exposure and Disease

Authors:

Philip J. Landrigan ,

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY
About Philip J.
MD, MSc
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J. Leith Sly,

Children's Health and Environment Program, Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
About J. Leith
PhD
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Mathuros Ruchirawat,

Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok, Thailand
About Mathuros
PhD
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Emerson R. Silva,

University of Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Brazil
About Emerson R.
PhD
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Xia Huo,

Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
About Xia
MD
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Fernando Diaz-Barriga,

Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, Mexico
About Fernando
PhD
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Heather J. Zar,

MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
About Heather J.
MD
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Malcolm King,

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada
About Malcolm
PhD
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Eun-Hee Ha,

Ewah Womans University, Seoul, Republic of South Korea
About Eun-Hee
MD
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Kwadwo Ansong Asante,

CSIR Water Research Institute, Accra, Ghana
About Kwadwo Ansong
DSc
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Hamid Ahanchian,

Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran
About Hamid
MD
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Peter D. Sly

Children's Health and Environment Program, Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
About Peter D.
MD, DSc
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Abstract

Environmental pollution is a major cause of disease and death. Exposures in early life are especially dangerous. Patterns of exposure vary greatly across countries. In low-income and lower middle income countries (LMICs), infectious, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases are still major contributors to disease burden. By contrast, in upper middle income and high-income countries noncommunicable diseases predominate. To examine patterns of environmental exposure and disease and to relate these patterns to levels of income and development, we obtained publically available data in 12 countries at different levels of development through a global network of World Health Organization Collaborating Centres in Children's Environmental Health. Pollution exposures in early life contribute to both patterns. Chemical and pesticide pollution are increasing, especially in LMICs. Hazardous wastes, including electronic waste, are accumulating. Pollution-related chronic diseases are becoming epidemic. Future Global Burden of Disease estimates must pay increased attention to the short- and long-term consequences of environmental pollution.
How to Cite: Landrigan, P.J., Sly, J.L., Ruchirawat, M., Silva, E.R., Huo, X., Diaz-Barriga, F., Zar, H.J., King, M., Ha, E.-H., Asante, K.A., Ahanchian, H. and Sly, P.D., 2016. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Changing Global Patterns of Exposure and Disease. Annals of Global Health, 82(1), pp.10–19. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2016.01.005
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Published on 17 Jun 2016.
Peer Reviewed

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